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Sulphur dioxide

It is a gas with the chemical formula SO2. It has been used in oenology to protect all wines including organic wines, for several hundred years.(In the past, and in a much less controlled way than today, sulfur sticks were burned inside barrels or vats before filling them)

Antiseptic : It inhibits the development of microorganisms

Antioxidant : it fixes oxygen

All wines NATURALLY contain sulphites. In fact, yeasts, during alcoholic fermentation, produce a small amount of SO2 (between 8 to 12 mg / L).

At Château PENIN, the wines produced without added sulphites are: Rosé NATUR, Clairet NATUR, and Rouge NATUR. They contain only natural sulphites and can benefit from the designation "sulphite-free".

For our other wines, to limit sulphites a very strict hygiene program is observed.

Vins sans sulfite Château Penin


An invention of the Gauls
Invented by the Gauls a few centuries before the arrival of the Romans, the barrel replaced the amphora, which was too fragile to transport wine.

Robust and easy to roll, it is still used today, not for transporting wine but for aging wines. Constructed from oakwood, a naturally porous material, it allows for regulated exchanges between the outside air and the wine contained inside.

This stabilizes the colour of the wine, rounds the tannins and promotes flavour complexity. The term barrel, formalized in the 19th century by the Bordeaux barrel, designates a container of 225 liters.
The origin of the wood
The origin of the wood is also important. Overall, French oaks, especially those from Allier (Troncais forest) region are recognized for their finesse.

Of the 250 species of oaks in the world, only three are mainly used in the making of a barrel: two French oaks (Pedunculate oaks and Sessile oak) and one North American oak (White oak).

It is the origin of the oak used that will determine its taste quality.
Wine aging
t leads to an evolution and typical wine aging. Thus, the wine aged in oak barrels will develop aromas of vanilla, coconut, fresh wood but also some roasted or smoked notes, coffee, cocoa or toasted bread.

Cette dernière famille d’arômes est due à la chauffe de la barrique lors de sa fabrication.

The intensity of the aromas given off by the wood will also depend on the age of the barrel and previous uses.
At Château Penin we use barrels of French oaks from forests sustainably managed by the ONF (national forest organization).

We are looking for a perfect integration of oak flavouring in our wines. To do this, we keep our barrels for 4 years. We adapt the proportion used of new or older barrels depending on the vintage or the style of wine to be made.

Each cuvée is a blend of several barrels of different ages and levels of toasting for more flavour complexity.

Each year the barrel is descaled and disinfected (without using chemicals), with hot pressurized water vapour. Prolonged use of barrels also helps reduce our carbon footprint.

Massal selection

Mass selection: consists of locating and selecting the best plants to be reproduced. Those bearing the best fruit on existing vines are singled out.The branches and cuttings taken will be used to create new vines.

At Château Penin we wantedthanks to this technique, to find and above all preserve the genetic heritage of very old strains of Cabernet Franc.

The clippings were taken from vines situated in an 80-year-old plot on a Pomerol vineyard.

We can thus now find and guarantee for the future the original taste qualities of Cabernet Franc, a historic grape variety from Bordeaux.